THE SALINE FEEDWATER IS DRAWN FROM OCEANIC OR UNDERGROUND SOURCES.
WPP uses the latest reverse osmosis desalinization/purification technology to turn seawater, surface water, brackish water, waste water and other polluted water into potable drinking water. In a single step, the system filters, softens and disinfects these water resources to produce water that meets who’s regulations for drinking water. The system also clears away naturally occurring organics and minerals, as well as contaminants from pollution, reduces salts, hardness, nitrates, pesticides, color, bacteria, viruses and disinfection byproducts.
The proposed desalinization/purification plant provides 250,000 gallons (946,250 liters) of potable water per day with a low energy consumption of 2.45 kWh per cubic meter of water. The reason for this low consumption of electricity is an energy recovery system incorporated into the plant. This volume of potable water can easily and at low cost be expanded through the addition of other desalinization/purification plants. Below are schema and pictures of the water desalinization/purification plant.
THE SALINE FEEDWATER IS DRAWN FROM OCEANIC OR UNDERGROUND SOURCES
WATER IS PRE - TREATED TO REMOVE SOLIDS AND ADJUST PH LEVEL TO PROTECT EQUIPMENT
WATER IS FORCED THROUGH MEMBRANES WHICH INHIBIT THE PASSAGE OF SALT
WATER IS STORED AND THEN DISTRIBUTED TO COMMUNITIES WHEN IT IS NEEDED
WATER IS POST - TREATED BY STABILIZINGTHE PH LEVEL (ADJUSTING THE ACID/ALKALINITY)
Pretreatment is typically required to insure a stable, long-term reverse osmosis (“RO”) system performance and membrane life. In general, surface sea and waste-waters require more pretreatment than well water supplies. Pretreatment may include clarification, filtration, ultra-filtration, pH adjustment, removal of free chlorine, anti-scalent addition and 5 micron auto-filter or cartridge filtration.
RO Process Design – Spiral-wound RO membrane elements are housed in cylindrical pressure vessels, with as many as seven inter-connected elements per vessel. Vessels piped in parallel constitute a single hydraulic stage, which typically yields 50% recovery of product water based on the feed rate.
The first-stage concentrate usually feeds one or more downstream stages. Two-stage systems yield about 75% recovery; three-stage systems yield about 85% recovery, depending on concentrate chemistry. Pressure vessels are staged in tapered arrays to provide adequate feed/concentrate flow-rates and to maintain proper differential operating pressures.
RO Membrane Elements
Biomethane can be produced via two different processes – digestion and thermal gasification. Digestion is an anaerobic process where bacteria convert degradable organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide. The feedstock is sewage sludge, household, industrial and agricultural waste. Biogas may also be produced from various agricultural energy crops.
Thermal gasification technique allows even waste-wood from forests or agriculture to be used to produce biomethane.
Biogas requires upgrading to a high level of methane concentration – biomethane – to be used in cars or to be injected into the natural gas grid. Compared to other alternative fuels, biomethane benefits from the extensive availability of biomass feedstock sources.