Plasma Gasification Efficiency:|
The gasification of waste offers many benefits, and almost no
disadvantages, although waste plasma gasification technology does require large
amounts of power. Municipal waste has become a problem by itself, and the
garbage barge to nowhere showed that following the same old processes will not
eliminate the waste problem.
Waste to energy using solid waste gasification makes great sense
on many different levels. Waste gasification plants can charge to dispose of
solid waste, just like traditional landfills do, plus the energy and byproducts
created during the waste gasification can also be sold as a profit. This makes
waste gasification plants a good investment financially. These plants use solid
waste gasification methods which are clean and ecologically friendly, making
this energy source much better than oil or other fossil fuels to prevent
High levels of carbon monoxide (CO) in the flue gas is a sign of poor combustion
efficiency. The EPA sets a limit of 100 parts per million (ppm) CO in the
combustion gases for these types of facilities. The WPP technology has
consistently exhibited CO emissions averaging between 15 and 40 ppm. Nitrogen
Oxide (NOx) emissions are generally 50-60 percent lower than other combustion
technologies without NOx control.
WPP air pollution control (APC) systems typically consist of a dry sorbent
injection system with a fabric filter (DSI/FF). Dry sorbent is injected into the
cooler combustion gases leaving the boiler economizer. The sorbent (typically
hydrated lime) provides for the removal of a large portion of the acid gases
(SO2 and HCl). Powdered activated carbon (PAC) is also injected at this point to
remove heavy metals and dioxins/furans. The gases then pass through a fabric
filter, which removes in excess of 99.99 percent of all particulates. The clean
gas exiting the fabric filter is discharged to the stack, where the gases are
then emitted at an elevated point in the atmosphere. Fly ash collected in the
boiler and fabric filter hoppers is transported by conveyor to the main ash
WPP Energy's air pollution control systems have realized superior results.
Waste-to-Energy facilities produce steam as a result of the heat from the
combustion process heating a boiler. This steam can be used for turbine
generators to produce electricity, or it can be sold as steam to local industry,
schools, hospitals or cities for process use heating and cooling. WPP projects
are generally engineered to produce electricity that can be used internally or
sold back to the national power grid. We maximize electric generating capacity
and steam production capacity on a project-by-project basis depending on local
electricity rates and steam needs. Appropriate equipment will be installed to
maximize efficiency based on those rates and the overall return on investment
for the project.
Municipal Solid Waste Processing
A core market focus of WPP in the renewable energy marketplace is waste to
energy (WTE) projects that utilize municipal solid waste (MSW) as the principal
fuel source and recover the energy for sale in the form of steam and/or
electricity. WTE projects are classified as renewable energy sources and are
better environmental alternatives for the following reasons:
- Reduced CO2 Emissions - The majority of MSW is comprised of biomass material;
that is material that originated from a biological life source including trees
The U.S. EPA estimates that approximately 70 percent of typical MSW composition
the U.S. is biomass. Plant and trees consume carbon dioxide (CO2) during their
and the principal emission from combustion of these materials in a WTE project
is CO2. As a result, WTE projects are “net zero” CO2 sources to the environment
from the combustion of the biomass portion of the fuel stream.
- Reduced Methane and Fossil Fuel Emissions – WTE projects reduce the amount of
waste going to landfills by approximately 90-95 percent on a volume reduction
basis. When land filled, the primary emission from the anaerobic digestion of the
MSW is methane, which is estimated to be 21 times more reactive than CO2 from a
greenhouse gas standpoint. Additionally, WTE facilities often offset energy
production from fossil fuel based facilities. Therefore, efficient combustion of
MSW is far better with respect to greenhouse gas emissions than land filling.
- Renewing Fuel Stream – MSW is a fuel source that has steadily grown throughout
the history of the United States and other developed countries. The U.S.
presently generates approximately 225 million tons of MSW on an annual basis.
Only 15 percent of the MSW in the U.S. is presently utilized as fuel, compared
to roughly 50 percent in Europe.
The WPP Technology Package can be scaled to accommodate as little as 100
tons/day of municipal solid waste to as high as 1,200 tons/day based upon the
available waste for processing and disposal. Multiple combustion, boiler and air
pollution control system trains can be added for redundancy and increased
Waste to Power Plant (WPP). When we operate and
maintain your WPP power plant, we have a vested interest in your success. We
will maximize your return with the industry’s most complete support services,
built on decades of worldwide power plant operating expertise.
Below are some of the features
and benefits of the system that will be of interest:
Our system is the safest, most efficient and cost effective
technology available to convert waste material into energy.
High heat destruction is achieved using rotary kilns
(1,000oC) and secondary gas combustor chamber (1,300oC) that produce
billions of British Thermal Units (BTUs) for steam production. Power
production process is the same as any other convention thermal power plant.
The technology is designed and certified to destroy up to
100% hazardous waste material and therefore is not limited to what kind of
waste material it can process.
Can remediate and destroy over 300 different toxic materials
including PCBs, Agent Orange toxin, low level radioactive medical waste,
Emissions from the process are the cleanest in the industry…
the technology does not produce dioxins or furans during the high heat
remediation process and uses the most state of the art emissions removal
The entire process is continuously fuelled by MSW or toxic
wastes with little to no surrogate fuel added. Each ton of garbage is
equivalent to one barrel of oil.
The cogeneration system uses the Babcock & Wilcox steam
boiler system and at least 2 separate G.E. turbine generators for redundancy
and maintenance purposes.
Waste to Energy/Power plants can be built on approximately
10-25 acres of land including the space necessary for heavy trucks and
equipment. Can be close to existing landfill sites and to the power grid, to
minimize further travel and CO2 emissions from trucks travelling back and
Can be up and running in 12 – 18 months.
Revenues from the sale of power, recycled metals, tipping
fees and carbon credits will recoup the cost of the plant in 2 to 3 years.
Each facility can easily be registered under the Kyoto
Protocol CDM projects.
Method of financing can be, debt, equity, Sukuk bonds,
municipal bonds, and under the Kyoto Protocol, the sales of carbon credits.
At the time of writing, carbon credits are selling on the carbon exchange at
approximately €15.00, each ton of Green House Gases from landfills is 21
times more harmful than CO2, so therefore we are able to receive 1.5 times
the carbon credit, which works out to US$31/ton of CER, if registered with
UNDA (United Nations Development Agency).
The remediation volume of MSW is higher using the WPP system
as the waste is characterized and processed prior to destruction. The waste
is shredded down to size, inert material and moisture removed, then blended
with higher BTU wastes such as old tires, non-recyclable plastics or other
high BTU hazardous wastes to achieve the necessary heat energy value
required for the system to reach “mass balance” negating the need for adding
surrogate fuel for complete waste material destruction. This “fuel” can be
produced and stored for 2 weeks in advance to ensure a steady supply.
Because the MSW can be condensed from as high 3 Tones down to 1 tone
depending on the ratio of combustible material to inert material and
moisture of the MSW, this means a higher volume of waste can be remediated
faster and therefore more carbon credits can be sold in less time.
WPP is working in association with experienced reputable
international companies Rolls Royce, General Electric, Caterpillar, and
Worley Parsons Engineering for site specific design and construction of the
facilities in order to ensure the integrity, quality and safety to the
community. Carbon emissions trading have been entrusted to TSF Brokers,
Political mileage, this can be promoted as taking a
leadership role in abating or minimizing the green house gases footprint.
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