Plasma Gasification Efficiency:

The gasification of waste offers many benefits, and almost no disadvantages, although waste plasma gasification technology does require large amounts of power. Municipal waste has become a problem by itself, and the garbage barge to nowhere showed that following the same old processes will not eliminate the waste problem.

Waste to energy using solid waste gasification makes great sense on many different levels. Waste gasification plants can charge to dispose of solid waste, just like traditional landfills do, plus the energy and byproducts created during the waste gasification can also be sold as a profit. This makes waste gasification plants a good investment financially. These plants use solid waste gasification methods which are clean and ecologically friendly, making this energy source much better than oil or other fossil fuels to prevent pollution.

High levels of carbon monoxide (CO) in the flue gas is a sign of poor combustion efficiency. The EPA sets a limit of 100 parts per million (ppm) CO in the combustion gases for these types of facilities. The WPP technology has consistently exhibited CO emissions averaging between 15 and 40 ppm. Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) emissions are generally 50-60 percent lower than other combustion technologies without NOx control.

Environmental Performance

WPP air pollution control (APC) systems typically consist of a dry sorbent injection system with a fabric filter (DSI/FF). Dry sorbent is injected into the cooler combustion gases leaving the boiler economizer. The sorbent (typically hydrated lime) provides for the removal of a large portion of the acid gases (SO2 and HCl). Powdered activated carbon (PAC) is also injected at this point to remove heavy metals and dioxins/furans. The gases then pass through a fabric filter, which removes in excess of 99.99 percent of all particulates. The clean gas exiting the fabric filter is discharged to the stack, where the gases are then emitted at an elevated point in the atmosphere. Fly ash collected in the boiler and fabric filter hoppers is transported by conveyor to the main ash discharge conveyor.

WPP Energy's air pollution control systems have realized superior results.

Energy Generation
Waste-to-Energy facilities produce steam as a result of the heat from the combustion process heating a boiler. This steam can be used for turbine generators to produce electricity, or it can be sold as steam to local industry, schools, hospitals or cities for process use heating and cooling. WPP projects are generally engineered to produce electricity that can be used internally or sold back to the national power grid. We maximize electric generating capacity and steam production capacity on a project-by-project basis depending on local electricity rates and steam needs. Appropriate equipment will be installed to maximize efficiency based on those rates and the overall return on investment for the project.

Municipal Solid Waste Processing
A core market focus of WPP in the renewable energy marketplace is waste to energy (WTE) projects that utilize municipal solid waste (MSW) as the principal fuel source and recover the energy for sale in the form of steam and/or electricity. WTE projects are classified as renewable energy sources and are better environmental alternatives for the following reasons:

  • Reduced CO2 Emissions - The majority of MSW is comprised of biomass material;
    that is material that originated from a biological life source including trees or plants.
    The U.S. EPA estimates that approximately 70 percent of typical MSW composition in
    the U.S. is biomass. Plant and trees consume carbon dioxide (CO2) during their growth
    and the principal emission from combustion of these materials in a WTE project is CO2. As a result, WTE projects are “net zero” CO2 sources to the environment from the combustion of the biomass portion of the fuel stream.
  • Reduced Methane and Fossil Fuel Emissions – WTE projects reduce the amount of waste going to landfills by approximately 90-95 percent on a volume reduction basis. When land filled, the primary emission from the anaerobic digestion of the MSW is methane, which is estimated to be 21 times more reactive than CO2 from a greenhouse gas standpoint. Additionally, WTE facilities often offset energy production from fossil fuel based facilities. Therefore, efficient combustion of MSW is far better with respect to greenhouse gas emissions than land filling.
  • Renewing Fuel Stream – MSW is a fuel source that has steadily grown throughout the history of the United States and other developed countries. The U.S. presently generates approximately 225 million tons of MSW on an annual basis. Only 15 percent of the MSW in the U.S. is presently utilized as fuel, compared to roughly 50 percent in Europe.

The WPP Technology Package can be scaled to accommodate as little as 100 tons/day of municipal solid waste to as high as 1,200 tons/day based upon the available waste for processing and disposal. Multiple combustion, boiler and air pollution control system trains can be added for redundancy and increased processing capacity.

Waste to Power Plant (WPP). When we operate and maintain your WPP power plant, we have a vested interest in your success. We will maximize your return with the industry’s most complete support services, built on decades of worldwide power plant operating expertise.

Below are some of the features and benefits of the system that will be of interest:

  • Our system is the safest, most efficient and cost effective technology available to convert waste material into energy.

  • High heat destruction is achieved using rotary kilns (1,000oC) and secondary gas combustor chamber (1,300oC) that produce billions of British Thermal Units (BTUs) for steam production. Power production process is the same as any other convention thermal power plant.

  • The technology is designed and certified to destroy up to 100% hazardous waste material and therefore is not limited to what kind of waste material it can process.

  • Can remediate and destroy over 300 different toxic materials including PCBs, Agent Orange toxin, low level radioactive medical waste, etc.

  • Emissions from the process are the cleanest in the industry… the technology does not produce dioxins or furans during the high heat remediation process and uses the most state of the art emissions removal technologies.

  • The entire process is continuously fuelled by MSW or toxic wastes with little to no surrogate fuel added. Each ton of garbage is equivalent to one barrel of oil.

  • The cogeneration system uses the Babcock & Wilcox steam boiler system and at least 2 separate G.E. turbine generators for redundancy and maintenance purposes.

  • Waste to Energy/Power plants can be built on approximately 10-25 acres of land including the space necessary for heavy trucks and equipment. Can be close to existing landfill sites and to the power grid, to minimize further travel and CO2 emissions from trucks travelling back and forth.

  • Can be up and running in 12 – 18 months.

  • Revenues from the sale of power, recycled metals, tipping fees and carbon credits will recoup the cost of the plant in 2 to 3 years.

  • Each facility can easily be registered under the Kyoto Protocol CDM projects.

  • Method of financing can be, debt, equity, Sukuk bonds, municipal bonds, and under the Kyoto Protocol, the sales of carbon credits. At the time of writing, carbon credits are selling on the carbon exchange at approximately €15.00, each ton of Green House Gases from landfills is 21 times more harmful than CO2, so therefore we are able to receive 1.5 times the carbon credit, which works out to US$31/ton of CER, if registered with UNDA (United Nations Development Agency).

  • The remediation volume of MSW is higher using the WPP system as the waste is characterized and processed prior to destruction. The waste is shredded down to size, inert material and moisture removed, then blended with higher BTU wastes such as old tires, non-recyclable plastics or other high BTU hazardous wastes to achieve the necessary heat energy value required for the system to reach “mass balance” negating the need for adding surrogate fuel for complete waste material destruction. This “fuel” can be produced and stored for 2 weeks in advance to ensure a steady supply. Because the MSW can be condensed from as high 3 Tones down to 1 tone depending on the ratio of combustible material to inert material and moisture of the MSW, this means a higher volume of waste can be remediated faster and therefore more carbon credits can be sold in less time.

  • WPP is working in association with experienced reputable international companies Rolls Royce, General Electric, Caterpillar, and Worley Parsons Engineering for site specific design and construction of the facilities in order to ensure the integrity, quality and safety to the community. Carbon emissions trading have been entrusted to TSF Brokers, London, UK.

  • Political mileage, this can be promoted as taking a leadership role in abating or minimizing the green house gases footprint.

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